According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 35.0 square miles (90.7 km²), of which, 34.2 square miles (88.5 km²) of it is land and 0.9 square miles (2.2 km²) of it (2.43%) is water.
Early pioneers began to make their way from the east coast of the United States to southern Michigan by the early 1830's. Congress was anxious to open up this new frontier and in 1826 authorized the survey and construction of a territorial road that would run from Detroit to the west, to Marshall and beyond. The lure of fertile ground, abundant timber and wild game brought settlers along this old Indian trail, with some ending up in what is today Fredonia Township.
The very first settler in Fredonia Township was Thomas Burland. Born and reared in Yorkshire, England, he brought his wife and three daughters in 1831 by sleigh to the newly organized Calhoun County. The next year they began building a log cabin on ground they had settled in Section 24, near the present-day Township Hall at F Drive South and Old 27. Mr. Burland had been a farmer in England, and it is said that he chose a beautiful spot for his home and farm. He owned the first team of horses and the first cattle brought into the township.
John Huston, from Rochester, New York, was the second settler in the township, arriving with his wife and three children by covered wagon in 1833. He planted the first orchard in the township and that same year sowed his first wheat on a 240-acre farmstead. His daughter Sarah was born on September 28, 1834 and was the first female child born in the township.
Fredonia Township was organized in 1838. The first town meeting was held at the home of Ebby Hyde on April 2, 1838. The first officers chosen by the Township were John Huston as Supervisor and Putnam Root as Clerk.
As of the census of 2020, there were 1585 people, 757 households, and 659 families residing in the township. The average age was 48.6 years and 23.6% of the population was over age 65. Employment rate was 55.3% The home ownership rate was 90.9%. The median rent was $853. For additional Census details, visit US Census Bureau.